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Citation Managers

Learn about how to use Citation Managers to help with your research!

Read on for the basics of writing citations in each of the three predominant styles: APA, Chicago, and MLA.

And remember: the latest editions of these style guides are always on reserve at the Library Information Desk!

APA

APA Citation was created by the American Psychological Society and is generally used in the Social Science disciplines, such as Psychology, Sociology and Education.

In-Text Citations
APA in-text citations typically contain three pieces of information: Author, Date, and Page Number. Like MLA, APA in-text citations are typically found at the end of a sentence in parentheses (Jones, 2016, p. 1). However, the author's name (and date), can be placed earlier in the sentence. Ex: Jones (2016) also says you can place the author and date earlier in the sentence, but the page number must stay at the end of the sentence or thought that is being cited (p. 2).

Full Citations
APA full citations usually start with the main author's last name, author's first initial and date, which is in parentheses. Then, depending on the type source that is being cited, the citation contains other pieces of information such as the work's title, publisher or journal title, URL or more. Below are general examples of APA citations for a print book, journal article from a database, and a website:

  • Book:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Journal Article:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and  Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

  • Website

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Some additional resources to help:

Chicago

Chicago citation style was created by the University of Chicago Press and is generally used in many other Humanities disciplines, such as History and Theology and Religious Studies.

In-Text Citations
Unlike APA and MLA, Chicago in-text citations consist of footnote notations that direct the reader to simplified citations of the cited source at the bottom of the page. The superscript1 notations should begin with "1" and continue through until the end of the paper2. The footnote contains the basic citation information like author, title, publisher/journal title, date and page number. You can see how to format footnotes for books, articles and websites below.

Full Citations
Chicago full citations usually start with the main author's last name followed by the author's first name. Then, depending on the type source that is being cited, the citation contains other pieces of information such as the work's title, publisher or journal title, place of publication or more. Below are general examples of Chicago citations for a print book, journal article from a database, and a website:

  • Book:

Footnote: 1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

1. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), 271.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom!. New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

  • Journal Article:

Footnote: 1. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Date): page.

1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Date): page numbers.

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

  • Website

Footnote: 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

1. Mister Jalopy, “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles,” Dinosaurs and Robots, last modified January 30, 2009, http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Mister Jalopy. “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles.” Dinosaurs and Robots. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

Some additional resources to help:

MLA

MLA Citation Format was created by the Modern Language Association of America and is generally used in certain fields in the Humanities, such as Literature and Communications.

In-Text Citations
MLA in-text citations typically contain two pieces of information: Author and Page Number. Like APA, MLA in-text citations are typically found at the end of a sentence in parentheses (Jones, p. 1). However, the author's name can be placed earlier in the sentence. Ex: Jones also says you can place the author and date earlier in the sentence, but the page number must stay at the end of the sentence or thought that is being cited (p. 2).

Full Citations
MLA full citations usually start with the main author's last name followed by the author's first name. Subsequent authors are then listed first name-last name. Then, depending on the type source that is being cited, the citation contains other pieces of information such as the work's title, publisher or journal title, medium of publication or more. Below are general examples of MLA citations for a print book, journal article from a database, and a website:

  • Book:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print.

  • Journal Article:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication.

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 15.1 (1996): 41-50. Web.

  • Website

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003. Web. 10 May 2006.

For more specific information, here are some additional resources to help:

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